SUMMARY OF DIFFERENT ENDOCRINE GLAND, THEIR HORMONES AND EFFECTS

This is the  Biology Gk study material section on “Summary of Endocrine gland, their Hormones and Effects” with explanation for various interview, competitive examination and entrance test. Solved examples with detailed answer description, explanation are given and it would be easy to understand.

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SUMMARY OF DIFFERENT ENDOCRINE GLAND, THEIR HORMONES AND EFFECTS
Source

(endocrine gland)

hormone Physiologic effects

(functions)

 

Pineal body    
 

  1. 1.       Somatotropin

 

 

  1. 2.       Thyrotropin(TSH)

 

 

  1. 3.       Adrenotropin (ACTH)

 

  1. 4.       Pancreatotropin

 

(PTH)

  1. 5.       Follicle – stimulating hormone (FSH)

 

  1. 6.       Lutenizing hormone

 

 

  1. 7.       Prolactin (LTH)

 

 

Intermedin

 

  1. 1.       Oxytoxin

 

  1. 2.       vasopressin
 

Controls growth and metabolism  of protein.  Deficiency causes dwarfism, excess causes gigantism and acromegaly

Stimulates thyroid

 

 

Stimulates adrenal cortex

 

Suppresses secretion of insulin

 

 

Affects growth of Graafian follicles in ovary and seminiferous tubules In testis

 

Affects production and release of gonadal hormones

 

Affects mammary glands and milk production

 

Affects pigments in skin chromatophores

 

Stimulates contraction of uterine muscles and secretion of milk

Regulates blood pressure and water loss by kidneys.

carotenoid bodies
Thyroid Thyroxine Increases O2 consunption or basal metabolic rate.  Deficiency leads to cretinism in children and myxedema in adults.  Hyperthyroidism causes goiter formation and exopthalmia
Parathyroids Parathormone Regulates calcium and phosphorous metabolism
Thymus Regulates growth. Sexual maturity and immunity
Islets of Langerhans

(a)    Beta cells

(b)   Alfa cells

 

  1. 1.       Insulin

 

 

  1. 2.       Glucogen

 

 

Oxidation of glucoseand its conversion into

Glycogen.  Deficiency causes diabetes mellitus

Conversion of liver glycogen into blood.

Adrenal

(a)    Cortex

 

 

(b)   medulla

 

  1. 1.       Cortisone
  2. 2.       Aldosterone
  3. 3.       Adrenosterone
  4. 1.       Epinephrine or adrenaline
  5. 2.       Norepinephrima
 

Conversion of proteion to carbohydrates.

Metabolism of sodium and potassium

Stimulates male characteristics.

Supplement action of sympathetic nervous system during emergencies

Norepinephrine Regulates normal blood pressure.

Gonads

(a)    testes

(b)   ovaries

 

(c)    placenta

 

Testosterone

 

 

  1. 1.       Estrogen

 

  1. 2.       Progesterone
  2. 1.       Chorionic gonadotropin
  3. 2.       Relaxin
 

Development and maintenance of male sex characters.

 

Development and maintenance of femal sex characteristics.

Changes associated with pregnancy

Acts with other hormones to maintain pregnancy

Relaxes pelvic ligaments at child birth

Alimentary canals

(a)    stomach

(b)   duodenum

 

Gastrin

1. endogstrone

2. secretin

3. Chloecystokinin

 

Induces gastric secretion.

Slows down gastric secretion

Stimulates pancreatic secretion

Stimulates bile secretion

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