RDBMS Interview Questions and answers – Part3

21 How to select the first record in a given set of rows?
Select top 1 * from sales.salesperson

22 What is the default “-SORT ” order for a SQL?

23 What is a self-join?
If we want to join two instances of the same table we can use self-join.

24 What’s the difference between DELETE and TRUNCATE ?
Following are difference between them:
=>>DELETE TABLE syntax logs the deletes thus making the delete operations low. TRUNCATE table does not log any information but it logs information about deallocation of data page of the table. So TRUNCATE table is faster as compared to delete table.
=>>DELETE table can have criteria while TRUNCATE can not.
=>> TRUNCATE table can not have triggers.

25 What’s the difference between “UNION” and “UNION ALL” ?
UNION SQL syntax is used to select information from two tables. But it selects only distinct records from both the table. , while UNION ALL selects all records from both the tables.

26 What are cursors and what are the situations you will use them?
SQL statements are good for set at a time operation. So it is good at handling set of data. But there are scenarios where we want to update row depending on certain criteria. we will loop through all rows and update data accordingly. There’s where cursors come in to picture.

27 What is ” Group by ” clause?
“Group by” clause group similar data so that aggregate values can be derived.

28 What is the difference between “HAVING” and “WHERE” clause?
“HAVING” clause is used to specify filtering criteria for “GROUP BY”, while “WHERE” clause applies on normal SQL.

29 What is a Sub-Query?
A query nested inside a SELECT statement is known as a subquery and is an alternative to complex join statements. A subquery combines data from multiple tables and returns results that are inserted into the WHERE condition of the main query. A subquery is always enclosed within parentheses and returns a column. A subquery can also be referred to as an inner query and the main query as an outer query. JOIN gives better performance than a subquery when you have to check for the existence of records.
For example, to retrieve all EmployeeID and CustomerID records from the ORDERS table that have the EmployeeID greater than the average of the EmployeeID field, you can create a nested query, as shown:

30 What are Aggregate and Scalar Functions?
Aggregate and Scalar functions are in built function for counting and calculations.
Aggregate functions operate against a group of values but returns only one value.
AVG(column) :- Returns the average value of a column
COUNT(column) :- Returns the number of rows (without a NULL value) of a column
COUNT(*) :- Returns the number of selected rows
MAX(column) :- Returns the highest value of a column
MIN(column) :- Returns the lowest value of a column
Scalar functions operate against a single value and return value on basis of the single value.
UCASE(c) :- Converts a field to upper case
LCASE(c) :- Converts a field to lower case
MID(c,start[,end]) :- Extract characters from a text field
LEN(c) :- Returns the length of a text

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