# Algebra symbols

Algebra :
The part of mathematics in which letters and other general symbols are used to represent numbers and quantities in formulae and equations.

Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example
x x variable unknown value to find when 2x = 4, then x = 2
equivalence identical to
equal by definition equal by definition
:= equal by definition equal by definition
~ approximately equal weak approximation 11 ~ 10
approximately equal approximation sin(0.01) ≈ 0.01
proportional to proportional to f(x g(x)
lemniscate infinity symbol
much less than much less than ≪ 1000000
much greater than much greater than 1000000  1
( ) parentheses calculate expression inside first 2 * (3+5) = 16
[ ] brackets calculate expression inside first [(1+2)*(1+5)] = 18
{ } braces set
x floor brackets rounds number to lower integer 4.34
x ceiling brackets rounds number to upper integer 4.35
x! exclamation mark factorial 4! = 1*2*3*4 = 24
x | single vertical bar absolute value | -5 | = 5
(x) function of x maps values of x to f(x) (x) = 3x+5
(g) function composition (g) (x) = (g(x)) (x)=3xg(x)=x-1 (g)(x)=3(x-1)
(a,b) open interval (a,b) = {x | a < x < b} x  (2,6)
[a,b] closed interval [a,b] = {x | a ≤ x ≤ b} x  [2,6]
delta change / difference t = t t0
discriminant Δ = b2 – 4ac
sigma summation – sum of all values in range of series  xi= x1+x2+…+xn
∑∑ sigma double summation capital pi product – product of all values in range of series  xi=x1∙x2∙…∙xn
e e constant / Euler’s number e = 2.718281828… e = lim (1+1/x)x , x→∞
γ Euler-Mascheroni  constant γ = 0.527721566…
φ golden ratio golden ratio constant
π pi constant π = 3.141592654…is the ratio between the circumference and diameter of a circle c = π·d = 2·π·r
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