# Aryabhata

Here we listed out important facts about Famous Scientist Aryabhata, with his Biography, Profile, Facts, Timeline, Awards, Achievement, etc.,

**Born:** 476 AD, Assaka

**Died:** 550 AD, India

**Nationality:** Indian

**Era:** Gupta Empire

**Books:** Aryabhatiya

**Main interests:** Mathematics, Astronomy

**Notable works:** Āryabhaṭīya, Arya-siddhanta

- We know the year of Aryabhata’s birth since he tells us that he was twenty-three years of age when he wrote Aryabhata which he finished in 499.
- We have given Kasumapura, thought to be close to Pataliputra (which was refounded as Patna in Bihar in 1541), as the place of Aryabhata’s birth but this is far from certain, as is even the location of Kusumapura itself.
- We do know that Aryabhata wrote Aryabhatiya in Kusumapura at the time when Pataliputra was the capital of the Gupta empire and a major centre of learning, but there have been numerous other places proposed by historians as his birthplace.
- Some conjecture that he was born in South India, perhaps Kerala, Tamil Nadu or Andhra Pradesh, while others conjecture that he was born in the north-east of India, perhaps in Bengal. In it is claimed that Aryabhata was born in the Asmaka region of the Vakataka dynasty in South India although the author accepted that he lived most of his life in Kusumapura in the Gupta empire of the north.
- We should note that Kusumapura became one of the two major mathematical centres of India, the other being Ujjain. Both are in the north but Kusumapura (assuming it to be close to Pataliputra) is on the Ganges and is the more northerly.
- Pataliputra, being the capital of the Gupta empire at the time of Aryabhata, was the centre of a communications network which allowed learning from other parts of the world to reach it easily, and also allowed the mathematical and astronomical advances made by Aryabhata and his school to reach across India and also eventually into the Islamic world.
- The surviving text is Aryabhata’s masterpiece the Aryabhatiya which is a small astronomical treatise, written in 118 verses giving a summary of Hindu mathematics up to that time.
- Its mathematical section contains 33 verses giving 66 mathematical rules without proof. The Aryabhatiya contains an introduction of 10 verses, followed by a section on mathematics with as we just mentioned, 33 verses, then a section of 25 verses on the reckoning of time and planetary models, with the final section of 50 verses being on the sphere and eclipses.
- The mathematical part of the Aryabhatiya covers arithmetic, algebra, plane trigonometry and spherical trigonometry.
- It also contains continued fractions, quadratic equations, sums of power series and a table of sines.
- Aryabhata was also familiar with numeral symbols and the place-value system.
- Other rules given by Aryabhata include that for summing the first n integers, the squares of these integers and also their cubes.
- Aryabhata gives formulae for the areas of a triangle and of a circle which are correct, but the formulae for the volumes of a sphere and of a pyramid are claimed to bewrong by most historians.
- We have looked at the mathematics contained in the Aryabhatiya but this is an astronomy text so we should say a little regarding the astronomy which it contains.
- Aryabhata gives the radius of the planetary orbits in terms of the radius of the Earth/Sun orbit as essentially their periods of rotation around the Sun.
- He believes that the Moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight, incredibly he belives that the orbits of the planet are ellipses.
- He correctly explains the causes of eclipse of the Sun and the Moon.
- The Indian belief up to that time was that eclipses were caused by a demon called Rahu. His value for the length of the year at 365 days 6 hours 12 minutes 30 seconds is an overestimate since the true value is less than 365 days 6 hours.

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