Jagadish Chandra Bose

Here we listed out important facts about famous scientist Jagadish Chandra Bose, with his Biography, Profile, Facts, Timeline, Awards, Achievement, etc.,

Born: 30 November 1858, Mymensingh, Bangladesh
Died: 23 November 1937, Giridih
Spouse: Abala Bose (m. 1887–1937)
Education: Hare School, St. Xavier’s Collegiate School, more
Parents: Bhagawan Chandra Bose, Bama Sundari Bose
Fields: Physics, biophysics, biology, botany, archaeology, Bengali literature, Bengali science fiction
Notable students: Satyendra Nath Bose, Meghnad Saha, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis, Sisir Kumar Mitra, Debendra Mohan Bose
Known for: Millimetre waves, Radio, Crescograph, Contributions to plant biology
Awards: Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (CIE) (1903), Companion of the Order of the Star of India (CSI) (1911), Knight Bachelor (1917)

 

  • Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose (November 30, 1858-November 23, 1937)was a Bengali polymath- a physicist, biology, botanist, archaeologist, and science fiction writer.
  • He pioneered the investigation of radio and microwave optics, made extremely significant contributions to plant science, and laid the foundations of experimental science in the Indian subcontinent.
  • He is considered the father of radio science, and is also considered the father of Bengali science fiction.
  • He was the first from the Indian subcontinent to get a US patent, in 1904.
  • Born in Bengal province of British India, Bose completed graduation from St. Xavier’s College, Calcutta. Then he went to the University of London to study medicine, but couldn’t complete his study due to health problems.
  • He returned to India and joined the Presidency College as a Professor of Physics. There, in spite of racial discrimination, and lack of funding and equipment, Bose carried on his scientific research.
  • He made remarkable progress in his research of remote wireless signaling and was the first to use semiconductor junction to detect radio signals. However, instead of trying to gain commercial benefit from this invention Bose made his inventions public in order to allow others to develop on his research.
  • Bose field for patent for one of his inventions due to peer pressure his reluctance to any form of patenting was well known. Now about 70 years of after his death he is being credited for many of his contributions to modern science.
  • Presidency College lacked a proper laboratory. Bose had to conduct his researches in a small 24 square foot room.
  • Bose spent his hard-earned money for making experimental equipment. Within a decade of his joining Presidency College, he emerged a pioneer in the incipient research field of wireless waves.
  • In 1887, Bose married Abala, daughter of the renowned Brahmo reformer Durga Mohan Das. Abala was awarded Bengal government scholarship in 1882 to study medicine in Madras (now Chennai), but had to give up because of ill health.
  • The first remarkable aspect of Bose’s follow up microwave research was that he reduced the waves to the millimeter level (about 5 mm wavelength). He knew that long waves were adbantageous because of their great penetrative power but realized their disadvantages for studying the light like-properties of those electric waves.
  • Bose’s first scientific paper, “On polarization of electric rays by double-refracting crystals” was communicated to the Asiatic Society of Bengal in May, 1895, within a year of Lodge’s paper.
  • His second paper was communicated to the Royal Society of London by Lord Rayleigh in October, 1895.
  • The 1895 public demonstration by Bose in Kolkata was before Marconi’s wireless signaling experiment on Salisbury Plain in England in May, 1897.
  • Concepts from his original 1897 papers have been incorporated into a new 1.3 mm multi-beam receiver now in use on the NRAO 12 Metre Telescope, Arizonal, U.S.A.
  • Neville Francis Mott, Nobel Laureate in 1977 for his own contributions to solid-state electronics, remarked that “J.C. Bose was at least 60 years ahead of his time” and “In fact, he had anticipated the existence of P-type and N-type semiconductors.”
  • His next contribution to science was in plant Physiology. He forwarded a theory for the ascent of sap in plants in 1927, his theory contributed to the vital theory of ascent of sap.  According to his theory, electromechanical pulsations of living cells were responsible for the ascent of sap in plants.
  • In his research in plant stimuli, he showed with the help of his newly invented cresscograph that plants responded to various stimuli as if they had nervous systems like that of animals.
  • He therefore found a parallelism between animal and plant tissues. His experiments showed that plants grow faster in pleasant music and its growth retards in noise or harsh sound.  This was experimentally verified later on.
  • His major contribution in the field of biophysics was the demonstration of the electrical nature of the conduction of various stimuli (wounds, chemical agents) in plants, which were earlier thought to be of chemical in nature. These claims were experimentally proved by Wildoh et al (Nature, 1992, 360, 62-65).
  • He also studied for the first time action of microwave in plant tissues and corresponding changes in cell membrane potential, mechanism of effect of seasons in plants, effect of chemical inhibitor on plant stimuli, effect of temperature etc.
  • He claimed that plants can “feel pain, understand affection etc.,” from the analysis of the nature of variation of the cell membrane potential of plants, under different circumstances. According to him a plant treated with care and affection gives out a different vibration compared to a plant subjected to torture.

 

Jagadish Chandra Bose

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