Drupal Interview Questions And Answers

A list of top frequently asked Drupal interview questions and answers are given below. Drupal jobs interview questions and answers page designed by our professionals help you to overcome interview fear and to successfully clear it.

1. What is Drupal?
Drupal is a free and open source Content Management System (CMS) that allows organizing, managing and publishing your content.

2. Why to use Drupal?
Drupal is very powerful and can be used for building large, complex sites. It is PHP based template and allows non-technical users to add and edit the content without any HTML or Web design knowledge. Using Drupal CMS, it can be easy to interact with other sites or technologies and can handle complex forms and workflows. It is available with more than 16000 modules which can be addressed with Drupal core and add-on modules.

3. What Does Drupal Do?
Drupal is the choice for many great web sites because it does a lot of different things very well, and allows different kinds of information to interact effectively through its flexible, open architecture. Drupal’s feature set is far more economic and practical for most organization.

4. List some features of Drupal?
The Features of Drupal are:
• It makes easy to create and manage your site.
• Translates anything in the system with built-in user interfaces.
• It connects your website to other sites and services using feeds, search engine connection capabilities etc.
• Drupal is open source software hence requires no licensing costs.
• It designs highly flexible, creative website to the users and display more effectively to increase the visitors.
• Drupal can publish your content on social media such as Twitter, Facebook and other social mediums.

5. What are the advantages of Drupal?
The advantages of Drupal are:
• Drupal is a flexible CMS that allows handling content types including video, text, blog, menu handling, real-time statistics etc.
• It provides a number of templates for developing web applications. So there is no need to start from scratch if you are building simple or complicated web applications.
• Drupal is easy to manage or create blog or website. It helps to organize, structure, find and reuse content.
• Drupal provides some interesting themes and templates which gives your website an attractive look.
• Drupal has over 7000 plug-ins to boost your website. Since Drupal is an open source, you can create your own plug-ins.

6. What are disadvantages of Drupal?
The disadvantage of Drupal are:
• Drupal is not user friendly interface. It requires advanced knowledge and few basic things about the platform to install and modify.
• Drupal is a new content management system. It is not compatible with other software.
• Performance is low compared to other CMS’s. The website which is built using Drupal will generate big server loads and never opens with a slow internet connection.

7. Why Drupal is so popular and called a powerful framework?
Drupal is very easy to learn and handle. A user with nill programming skill can also handle the content management and customization of a Drupal’s website. That’s why Drupal is getting popular day by day.

8. What Is CMS?
Content management system (CMS) is a collection of procedures used to manage work flow in a collaborative environment. These procedures can be manual or computer-based. The procedures are designed to allow large number of people to contribute and share stored data Control access to data, based on user roles. Reduce repetitive duplicate input Improve the ease of report writing Improve communication between users.
In a CMS, data can be defined as almost anything – documents, movies, pictures, phone numbers, etc. CMSs are frequently used for storing, controlling, revising, semantically enriching, and publishing documentation. Content that is controlled is industry-specific

9. What Is A Web Content Management System?
A Web content management system is content management system software, implemented as a Web application, for creating and managing HTML content. It is used to manage and control a large dynamic collection of Web material. A WCMS facilitates content creation, content control, editing, and essential Web maintenance functions. The software provides authoring tools designed to allow users with little knowledge of programming languages or markup languages to create and manage content with relative ease. Most systems use a database to store content, metadata, or artifacts that might be needed by the system. Content is frequently, but not universally, stored as XML, to facilitate reuse and enable flexible presentation options.
Most systems use server side caching boosting performance. This works best when the WCMS is not changed often but visits happen on a regular basis. Administration is typically done through browser-based interfaces, but some systems require the use of a fat client.

10. Compare Drupal To Commercial CMS System?
Drupal is often compared to a number of commercial content management systems including Crown Peak, ExpressionEngine, Clickability and Site Life in terms of capabilities. None of these systems offer the range of features that can be found in Drupal or the flexible, developer-friendly architecture that allows us to rapidly deploy dynamic web sites. In terms of sustainability, these platforms lack the innovative approach to development, with updates and new features continually being added to the platform. These systems typically do surpass Drupal in terms of out-of-the-box reporting and metrics tools, generally providing views of data that is also stored in other systems.

11. How Does Drupal Compare To Other Open Source Cms System?
Drupal is also often compared with other open source content management systems including Joomla, Plone, Scoop, Silver stripe, Typo3, Graffiti, Movable Type and WordPress. There are characteristic features to all of these systems that make them appropriate in certain contexts, and most of them compare favorably to Drupal in one category of operation or another. But few of them are capable of offering the balance between performance and functionality found in Drupal.

12. How Does Drupal Scale?
Drupal sites are used in very demanding scenarios, serving millions of page views a day. Drupal scalability and performance optimization is one of our core competencies, and we often work with existing web properties to find ways to improve their performance.

13. What Kind Of Support Is Available To Drupal?
A wide range of support services are available for organizations running Drupal sites. The Drupal community itself is an excellent resource for people looking to learn more about the platform or resolve specific issues that emerge using the system. Acquia offers an enterprise distribution of Drupal that includes uptime monitoring, email and telephone based troubleshooting support, and subscription plans for sites with varying performance requirements.

14. What Are The Applications Of Drupal?
Here are some typical Drupal usages:
o Content management – Using a simple, browser-based interface, members can publish stories, blogs, polls, images, forums, etc. Administrators can easily customize the design of their Drupal installation.
o Hierarchical ordering- The Drupal classification system allows hierarchical ordering, cross-indexing of posts and multiple category sets for most content types. Access to content is controlled through administrator-defined user roles. A search option is also available.
o Weblog – A single installation can be configured as an individual personal weblog site or multiple individual weblogs. Drupal supports the Blogger API, provides RSS feeds for each individual blog and can be set to ping weblog directories when new content is posted on the home page.
o Discussion-based community – A Drupal web site can be successfully used as a discussion forum. Comment boards, attached to most content types, make it simple for members to discuss new posts. Administrators can control whether content and comments are posted without approval, with administrator approval or through community moderation. Collaboration – Used for managing the construction of Drupal, the project module is suitable for supporting other open source software projects. The collaborative book module includes versions control, making it simple for a group to create, revise and maintain documentation or any type of text.

15. Why Use Drupal?
Here is a list of the Drupal benefits:
o Easy to install.
o Easy to use – no programming knowledge needed.
o It has lots of features including Search Engine Friendly URLs(SEF), categories, search function.
o It has lots of modules to extend your site’s functionality.
o Flexibility – you can easily turn your Drupal installation into a forum, blog, wiki and many other types of web sites.
o It is free to use and it is open source. Drupal can be easily installed and modified to change the source code to fit your needs.
o Lots of users and a large community find it easy to find solutions to your problems.

16. Which PHP compatibility is used for Drupal?
PHP 5.2+

17. What are system requirements for Drupal installation?
System requirements for Drupal 8:
o Web server: Apache, Nginx, or Microsoft IIS
o Database: MySQL 5.5.3/MariaDB 5.5.20/Percona Server 5.5.8 or higher with PDO and an InnoDB-compatible primary storage engine, PostgreSQL 9.1.2 or higher with PDO, SQLite 3.6.8 or higher
o PHP 5.5.9 or higher
o PHP Memory: 60 MB

18. What are the new features of Drupal 8?
• New Theme Engine : It includes a brand new theming engine called Twig. It is PHP-based, flexible, fast, and secure.
• Drupal 8 is mobile first now
• It has extensive multilingual features right out of the box.
• It has configuration management built into it at the file-system level so that carrying over configuration elements in Drupal 8.
• Easy Authoring : It bring unprecedented power into the hands of the Content Editor, with WYSIWYG editor CKEditor now bundled with the core.
• Views Now Part of its Core :
• Better Support for Accessibility
• Web Services in-Built in Drupal 8
• In Drupal 8 it has Guided Tour
• JavaScript Automated Testing in Drupal 8
• Loading Speed improvement in Drupal 8.

19. How can we add Regions in Drupal Theme and list some Default Regions?
Adding regions to a theme requires two things that’s are given below :-
• Adding region meta-data to your THEMENAME.info.yml file.
• Please edit your page.html.twig file then print new regions.
Default Regions
• page.header
• page.primary_menu
• page.secondary_menu
• page.highlighted
• page.help (It has dynamic help text for admin pages)
• page.content (main content of current page)
• page.sidebar_first
• page.sidebar_second
• page.footer
• page.breadcrumb

20. Explain caching in Drupal?
Through caching Drupal allows to speed up website using different configuration like page caching, block caching and lifetime for cached pages.
• Page Caching: It enables the entire HTML of each page to be stored in the database. It reduces the amount of queries needed
• Block Caching: You can set the cache setting for a block in views, when block created by views
• Minimum cache lifetime: It is the amount of time before the page cache is cleared. On each cron run, page caches are cleared.
• Expiration of cached pages: It only applies for an external mechanism, for example, your browser cache or varnish

21. Why Drupal needs database? What databases are supported?
Drupal stores its information in the database like individual pages, registered users and so on. For your Drupal site, database forms the back end; it supports MySQL /MariaDB, PostgreSQL and in Drupal 7, SQLite.

22. Can you explain how the database system of Drupal works?
In a database Drupal stores information, and each information has its own database table. For example, the basic information regarding the nodes of your site are stored and kept in the node table, and if you use the CCK module to add fields to your nodes, the field information is stored in a separate table.

23. What is a render array in Drupal?
For Drupal content render arrays are the basic building blocks. In Drupal, render arrays provide you a structured way to programmatically change the content before it is displayed.

24. Mention what are the key features of Drupal?
There are two key features of Drupal
• Upload Module: It enables users to attach different types of files to node types of your liking.
• Embedding: It enables to embed media within nodes that are hosted on your websites.

25. What is Drupal’s taxonomy system and what are some of its key features?
Drupal comes with a built in taxonomy system that allows for categorization of the nodes on a site.The taxonomy system allows for arbitrary definition of terms, as well as arbitrary organization of those terms into vocabularies. There is no limit to the number of vocabularies that can be created, nor is there any limit to the number of terms that can be included in a vocabulary.
A vocabulary can also have free tagging which means that, instead of entering specific terms ahead of time, users may enter tags freely at the time the content is created and those tags automatically become terms in that vocabulary. Drupal’s taxonomy system is one if its most powerful and flexible features.

26. Explain the concept of “nodes” in a Drupal system.
All content on a Drupal website is stored and treated as “nodes”. A node is any piece of individual content (e.g., a page, article, forum topic, blog entry, etc.). Note, though, that comments are not stored as nodes but are always connected to a node.
The ability to create different “content types” is a way Drupal allows you to have different kinds of nodes for different purposes. For example, an “article” is one content type, a “book page” is another, and a “blog entry” yet another. You can also create new content types of your own.
Treating all content as nodes provides a great deal of flexibility that facilitates and simplifies creating new types of content. It also makes it easy to apply new features or changes to all content of a particular type.

27. What Are Hooks?
Hooks allow modules to alter and extend the behavior of Drupal core, or another module. They are one of the various ways that code components in Drupal can communicate with one another. Using hooks a module developer can change how core or another module works — without changing the existing code.

28. What is Node and Block in Drupal?
In Drupal, if there is any new story or page, forum topic etc. is referred to as a node. Node module is responsible and takes care of adding, removing, and editing operation on any content in a website. A piece of information (block) can be displayed at a particular location and that location is called a region. Regions are like left side bar, header, footer etc. Blocks can be fit into any region based on configuration settings.

29. Explain Region, Block, Menu In Drupal?
Pages on your Drupal site are laid out in regions, which can include the header, footer, sidebars, and main content section; your theme may define additional regions. Blocks are discrete chunks of information that are displayed in the regions of your site’s pages. Blocks can take the form of menus, the output from modules, or dynamic and static chunks of information that you’ve created yourself.
There are three standard menus in Drupal: Primary Links, Secondary Links, and Navigation. Primary and Secondary links are built by site administrators, and displayed automatically in the page header of many themes. Navigation is the catch-all menu that contains your administration menus, as well as links supplied by modules on your site. You can also create your own custom menus, and display them by enabling their blocks.
You can customise menus in several ways, such as reordering menu items by setting their “weight” or simply dragging into place, renaming menu items, and changing the link title. You can move a menu item into a different menu by editing the Parent property of the menu item.
You can also add custom menu items to a menu, from the Add menu item tab of the Menu administration screen. To create a menu item, you will need to provide the path to the content.

30. What is PDO?
PDO is referred as PHP Data Objects. It is a consistent way to access the database. It helps the developers to write code in the easier way. It is like a data access layer that uses a unified API. Drupal provides a database abstraction layer, which helps the developer to work easily with multi-database servers. It is used to preserve the syntax and power of SQL and to work with complex functionality. It provides a defined interface for dynamic queries with using security checks and good practices. This process is developed at the top of the PDO database API.

31. What is template.php in Drupal?
The template.php file in the theme directory allows you to override a theme function.

32. What are the files required for theme and module?
Drupal uses .info files to store metadata about themes and modules.
The files required for
• Theme: style.css , page.tpl.php , template.php, block.tpl.php
• Module: modulename.info , modulename.module , optional modulename.install

33. Where should we use theme hook and what is the use of that file?
template.php in the theme folder. This php file is used to override other theme functions. This file must start with opening PHP tag. PHP Template should be informed to override the theme functions which are not listed in the basic list.

34. Which design pattern is used by Drupal?
Singleton Design pattern

35. How to add custom PHP codes in pages using Drupal?
Drupal does not allow adding PHP code directly inside a post or in a block by default. To do this, we need to activate a drupal module called PHP filter via Administer Site building Modules.

36. What is Drupal main menu?
Menus are very important to navigate your website easily. Menus offer a set of links as a result; you can navigate your website. The Drupal menu allows you to add, remove and rename the menus and menu items.

37. What is the use of Show as expanded field while creating menu?
If it is consist of sub-menus. Then it will be displayed under parent menu item.

38. What is the use of weight field while creating menu?
It Sets the order of menu items.

39. What does sticky at top of lists do in publishing options while creating the front page?
It fixes your page at top of lists on your site.

40. What is the use of Publishing options while creating blogs?
It allows you to publish your blog content on Front Page or you can stick at top of lists as per the demand.

41. What is the use of Menu settings option while creating articles?
By clicking on Provide a menu link checkbox it shows all the related details of Menu such as Menu link title, Description, Parent item, andWeight.

42. What is the use of Revision information option while creating articles?
Provide revised information if any changes are made in the article.

43. What is the use of Comment settings option while creating articles?
By selecting open or close, it allows others to write comment for the article.

44. How do you disable commenting on articles in Drupal?
To disable comments in Drupal 8, there are two parts.
Using Drupal Admin
• First of all, login to your Drupal admin area
• Now, go to the Administrator tab, then Content tab and finally click on the Content Types.
• Now, click and edit the content type you prefer to disable the comments for.
• Lastly, you must ensure the comments are on ‘OFF’ mode by default
If you’re using Drupal 7.x/8.x use the following method to disable the comments:
• Login to your admin area
• Go to Structure -> Content -> Types ->Comment Settings
• Select the option ‘Closed’ present under ‘Default comment setting’
• Save the changes
By executing an SQL query
Deleting/disabling the comments can also be executed by the SQL query in the phpMyAdmin. Here are the steps to follow:
Execute this SQL query in your database

UPDATE system SET status = ‘0’ WHERE filename = ‘modules/comment/comment.module’;

If you would like to reverse the effect, i.e. enable comments at a later stage, simply change the SET status = ‘1’

45. What is the use of Authoring information option while creating articles?
Specifies the authored name and the date when article has been authored.

46. What is the use of Configuration menu?
This is an important part in the Drupal Back-End. Any changes done in this configuration, will affect the entire website. Here you can do the user account setting, site information setting or any other general site setting.

47. How would you optimize a Drupal website?
The steps to optimize the Drupal site are:
• Enable Page Caching
• Compress CSS files
• Js Aggregation
• Moving Media Files and Static files to a CDN
• Optimize Images Size and Their Number
• Theme Optimization

48. What is Drupal content type?
Drupal content type defines the style in which contents are collected and displayed.

49. Mention the status of the content present while filtering the pages?
The status of the content present while filtering the pages are:
• Published
• promoted
• not promoted
• sticky
• not sticky

50. What is the use of Menu Management in Drupal?
Menu Management is the important part to navigate through your Drupal admin page.

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