The use of analytical instruments and technical advances have led to the quantitative studies of molecular structure and events underlaying biological processes termed Molecular Biology.
The study of molecular biology includes
(i) Analysis of gene structure, function and the mechanism by which genes are replicated and transcribed and control the synthesis of enzymes and proteins,
(ii) Studies of sub-cellular structures and their roles in adaptive and regulatory processes within the cell,
(iii) Investigations of the mechanisms underlaying cellular differentiation and
(iv) Analysis of the molecular basis of evolution.